The Judiciary

The Vietnamese court system includes the Supreme People’s Court, the Superior People’s Court (introduced by the Law on Organization of People’s Court of 2014), the Provincial People’s Courts in cities and provinces, and the District People’s Courts.

A dispute which is brought before court for settlement is tried at two levels, first instance and appellate levels. An appellate court may either uphold or reverse the ruling from the court of first instance. Most cases begin at the district or provincial court level with the possibility of appeal to the high/superior courts. In certain cases, a judgment from an inferior court can be challenged before a Superior People’s Court or the Supreme People’s Court.

All Courts (except for the Supreme People’s Court and District People’s Courts) are divided into six divisions: criminal, civil, administrative, economic, labour, and family & juvenile. Such divisions at the District People’s Court are not compulsory. Under the Civil Procedure Code, all disputes, whether civil, commercial or labour, are subject to the same set of procedural rules. A dispute may, depending on the type and the value of the dispute, either be heard at the district court or the provincial court at the first instance. The recognition of foreign court judgments and foreign arbitral awards falls under the jurisdiction of the provincial court.

Related Chapters

A Brief Introduction to Vietnam

Culture and Religion in Vietnam

The National Assembly

The Government

Legal System

Regulatory Framework

Banking & Finance

Capital Markets

Land & Housing

Labour Law


Intellectual Property

Selected Sector Regulations

Dispute Resolution

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